What is atoms ?

Currently just over 100 elements are known, of which 92 occur in nature. Each element is characterized in that its atoms have the same number of protons and electrons and neutrons. The number of protons is the atomic number or atomic number. The lightest atom is the hydrogen with a proton. The second (helium) has two protons, the next (Li) has three protons and so on. Almost the entire mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus containing the protons and neutrons. He has a diameter of several meter (1 FM = .0000000000000001 m). The distance of the electrons from the nucleus is about 0.1 NM 
The chemical and physical properties of the elements are determined by the number of electrons and the distribution.The core is electrically charged positive, the electrons are electrically charged negative. This means that the core and the electron shell attract each other, while the electrons repel each other. The electrons are arranged in so-called shells, which can accommodate all the more so the further out they are. The first shell contains a maximum of 2 electrons, the second 8, third 18 and fourth 32nd The next shell can hold more electrons, but not in the previously known elements were taken. 
Elements with only one electron in the outer shell (such as hydrogen, lithium, potassium) are and those where only one electron is missing from the outer shell (such as land, chlorine or bromine) and are therefore very reactive in nature almost exclusively in compounds before. Elements in which the outer shell is full (like the noble gases helium, neon, argon) are chemically inert, meaning they do not respond practically.
The calculation of the electron configuration and the possible interpretation of one of the great successes of quantum mechanics in the 1920s.

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