Kinetic energy recovery systems KERS in Formula One F1 2011

The KERS again in 2011, and will be optional. After its unsuccessful premiere in 2009, the teams decided not to use it in 2010 as a cost containment measure, but according to legal regulations was carrying. With cars different from those of 2009, we'll see how it will affect their incorporation into the design of the cars of 2011.
This energy recovery system allows for power when the cars slow down for storage, then release power to provide extra power for 6.7 seconds per lap when you press a button. In essence the system is simple, just need three main components: the motor-generator that generates power in braking and releases it when you use the KERS, the batteries to store power, and control unit that controls the entire process.

Motor-generator (yellow in the drawing): Mounted on the front of the motor is coupled to a gear positioned on the front of the crankshaft. It works in two modes, one recovering energy from braking to turn it into electrical energy that is stored in batteries, and another doing the opposite, return the battery power to operate as a motor when you press the button on the KERS. Owing to the high revs at which rotates and the large electric current generated and released, usually the teams cooled with water or oil.

Batteries (red): Although flywheels have been developed to store energy in 2009 were only used electric batteries lithium ion. Comprising some 40 individual cells last two races, and usually is mounted on the floor of the pontoon under the radiators. To be loaded and unloaded several times each lap was very hot and need water cooling systems or oil, even with its own pump and radiator.

Control unit (blue): The electronic box has two functions, one to invest in and control the switching of current between the batteries and the motor-generator, and the other to oversee the status of the battery cells. The latter role is crucial, because the battery efficiency is reduced if one cell fails, in addition to that cell may overheat and cause safety problems. With the 400 KJ that can store a maximum, the system provides 80 hp of power for 6.7 seconds, but the teams that used in 2009 had a difficult time with him to improve lap times. The reason was the total weight (minimum 25 kg) and its location. The slicks front that was used, wider than the current demanded a very advanced weight distribution with 49% of weight bearing on the front axle, so the KERS components mounted behind the center of gravity of the car they be difficult to move weight forward.
In 2011 KERS will have the same requirements as in 2009 in terms of energy stored and discharged, but the weight distribution problem is much smaller with narrower front tires, a fixed weight distribution for tires Pirelli (46% front, 54% back), and a minimum weight of the cars high620 to 640 kg.
What we do will be a challenge for designers is the accommodation of the KERS components, especially batteries. With the ban on refueling teams have expanded fuel tanks to the pontoons, which has been forced to make longer and narrower radiators. In 2011, with the KERS batteries, the pontoons will have to be more bulky, which penalize some aerodynamics, but not enough to negate the advantage provided by their extra power.

- Hydraulic KERS:
An alternative to the battery system that could see in 2011 is the use of hydraulics. This system has its limitations, but with the current energy storage limit may apply. KERS would include a hydraulic pump instead of the motor-generator, and a rechargeable battery instead. A simple valve system on the brakes would cause the pump to send oil to the accumulator or KERS button that oil back to the pump by turning and producing power. Its location in an F1 would be relatively simple.
McLaren developed in the late 90's a system like this, but was banned before I could use. If we join that McLaren has said that the KERS in 2011 will be less electronic and hydraulic, and have "creative ideas" for 2011, all this leads us to speculate that the English use the system in 2011.

 With a flywheel KERS:
Nobody has used this system in F1, but Honda developed it to your car from 2009 before his retirement from F1, and Williams also has developed. The flywheel would replace the batteries when storing the energy, making it as kinetic energy (can rotate up to 40,000 rpm) and non-electrical.
Williams offered the FIA system supply is clean all equipment as cost-cutting measure, but not accepted. The team of Frank Williams has rejected use in 2011, so this technology will have to resign themselves to be in other categories (Porsche has developed in collaboration with Williams a 911 GT3 R hybrid with this system) or other applications outside of the competition.

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